UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

_____________________

 

FORM 8-K

CURRENT REPORT

 

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

______________________

 

 

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): June 16, 2015

 

PROPHASE LABS, INC.

(Exact name of Company as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

(State or other

jurisdiction of incorporation)

 

0-21617

(Commission

File Number)

 

23-2577138

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

621 N. Shady Retreat Road

Doylestown, PA

 

 

18901

(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

 

Company's telephone number, including area code: (215) 345-0919

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the Company under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):

 

¨ Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

¨ Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

 

 
 

    

Item 3.03 Material Modification to Rights of Security Holders.

 

Effective June 18, 2015, ProPhase Labs, Inc. (the “Company”) changed its state of incorporation from the State of Nevada to the State of Delaware (the “Reincorporation”) pursuant to a plan of conversion, dated June 16, 2015 (the “Plan of Conversion”). The Company filed the following instruments on June 18, 2015 to effect the Reincorporation, each of which became effective at 5:00 pm eastern standard time (the “Effective Time”): (i) articles of conversion (the “Nevada Articles of Conversion”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada, (ii) a certificate of conversion (the “Delaware Certificate of Conversion”) and (iii) a certificate of incorporation (the “Delaware Certificate of Incorporation”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. Pursuant to the Plan of Conversion, the Company also adopted new bylaws, which became effective at the Effective Time (the “Delaware Bylaws”).

 

The Reincorporation was previously submitted to a vote of, and approved by, the Company’s stockholders at its 2015 Annual Meeting of Stockholders held on June 16, 2015, as set forth in Item 5.07 below. Upon the effectiveness of the Reincorporation:

 

    the affairs of the Company ceased to be governed by Nevada corporation laws and became subject to Delaware corporation laws;

 

    the resulting Delaware corporation (“ProPhase-DE”) is the same entity as the Company previously incorporated in Nevada (“ProPhase-NV”) and continues with all of the rights, privileges and powers of ProPhase-NV, possesses all of the properties of ProPhase-NV, continues with all of the debts, liabilities and obligations of ProPhase-NV and continues with the same officers and directors of ProPhase-NV immediately prior to the Reincorporation; and

 

    each outstanding share of ProPhase-NV common stock continues to be an outstanding share of common stock of ProPhase-DE, and each outstanding option or right to acquire shares of ProPhase-NV common stock continues to be an option or right to acquire shares of common stock of ProPhase-DE.

 

 
 

  

Certain rights of the Company’s stockholders changed as a result of the Reincorporation, as described in the Company’s Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 11, 2015, under the section entitled “Proposal 3 - Approval Of Reincorporation From Nevada To Delaware”, which description is incorporated in its entirety herein by reference.

 

The Reincorporation did not affect any of the Company’s material contracts with any third parties, and the Company’s rights and obligations under such material contractual arrangements continue to be rights and obligations of the Company after the Reincorporation. The Reincorporation did not result in any change in headquarters, business, jobs, management, location of any of the offices or facilities, number of employees, assets, liabilities or net worth (other than as a result of the costs incident to the Reincorporation) of the Company.

 

The foregoing descriptions do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the Plan of Conversion, the Nevada Articles of Conversion, the Delaware Certificate of Conversion, the Delaware Certificate of Incorporation and the Delaware Bylaws, copies of which are filed as Exhibits 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 5.07 Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders.

 

On June 16, 2015, the Company held its Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Annual Meeting”). The following is a listing of the votes cast for or withheld, and the number of broker non-votes, with respect to each nominee for director and a listing of the votes cast for and against, as well as abstentions and broker-non votes, with respect to each other matter voted upon at the Annual Meeting, as applicable. At the Annual Meeting, the Company’s stockholders (i) elected each nominee as a director, (ii) ratified the appointment of EisnerAmper LLP as the company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015; (iii) authorized the Reincorporation, as described in Item 3.03 above, and (iv) approved a proposal to adjourn the Annual Meeting to solicit additional proxies if necessary.

 

1. Directors Information:

 

  Number of Shares
Director      For   Withheld Broker Non-Votes
1. Ted Karkus  8,118,839  3,011,400  3,964,658
2. Jason Barr  8,544,727  2,585,512  3,964,658
3. Mark Leventhal  8,109,246  3,020,993  3,964,658
4. Mark Burnett  8,109,246  3,020,993  3,964,658
5. Louis Gleckel, MD  8,117,396  3,012,843  3,964,658
6. James McCubbin  8,111,889  3,018,350  3,964,658

 

 

2. To ratify the appointment of EisnerAmper LLP as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015:

 

For 14,696,117
Against      341,672
Abstentions        57,108
Broker Non-Votes                 0

 

 
 

  

3. To approve a proposal to change the Company’s state of incorporation from Nevada to Delaware:

 

For 8,084,090
Against 3,023,767
Abstentions      22,382
Broker Non-Votes 3,964,658

 

4. To approve a proposal to adjourn the Annual Meeting to solicit additional proxies if there are insufficient votes at the time of the meeting to adopt one or more of the foregoing proposals:

 

For 11,733,396
Against   3,296,382
Abstentions        65,118
Broker Non-Votes                 0

 

  

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

 

(d) Exhibits.

 

Number   Description
2.1   Plan of Conversion, dated June 16, 2015.
3.1   Articles of Conversion, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada on June 18, 2015.
3.2   Certificate of Conversion, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 18, 2015.
3.3   Certificate of Incorporation, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 18, 2015.
3.4   Bylaws, effective June 18, 2015.

 

 
 

  

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

  PROPHASE LABS, INC.
     
Dated: June 19, 2015 By: /s/ Robert V. Cuddihy, Jr.
    Robert V. Cuddihy, Jr.
    Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer

 

 
 

   

INDEX TO EXHIBITS

 

 

Number   Description
2.1   Plan of Conversion, dated June 16, 2015.
3.1   Articles of Conversion, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada on June 18, 2015.
3.2   Certificate of Conversion, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 18, 2015.
3.3   Certificate of Incorporation, as filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 18, 2015.
3.4   Bylaws, effective June 18, 2015.

 

 

 

Exhibit 2.1

 

PLAN OF CONVERSION

 

THIS PLAN OF CONVERSION (this "Plan") is adopted this 16th day of June, 2015, by ProPhase Labs, Inc., a Nevada corporation ("ProPhase-NV" or the "Company"), for the purpose of converting ProPhase-NV into a Delaware corporation to be known as ProPhase Labs, Inc. (the "Resulting Entity"), in accordance with the provisions of the Nevada Revised Statutes and the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "Conversion").

RECITALS

WHEREAS, the Board of Directors and stockholders of ProPhase-NV have approved the Conversion;

 

WHEREAS, in order to effect the Conversion, ProPhase-NV has adopted this Plan for the purpose of setting forth the manner and terms on which ProPhase-NV will continue its existence under the laws of the State of Delaware, including, without limitation, the method for effecting the Conversion and the manner and basis for converting ProPhase-NV's outstanding shares of stock into outstanding shares of stock of the Resulting Entity; and

 

WHEREAS, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it is intended that the Conversion qualify as a reorganization within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT KNOWN, that:

 

Section 1. Conversion. The name of the converting entity is ProPhase Labs, Inc. At the Effective Time (as defined below), ProPhase-NV shall be converted into a Delaware corporation under the name ProPhase Labs, Inc.

 

Section 2. Effective Time. Provided that this Plan has not been terminated or deferred pursuant to Section 12 hereof, or unless another date and time is specified, the Conversion of ProPhase-NV into the Resulting Entity shall be effective (the "Effective Time") at 5:00PM eastern standard time following: (a) the filing of a duly executed Articles of Conversion with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada; and (b) the filing with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware of (i) a duly executed Certificate of Conversion, and (ii) a duly executed Certificate of Incorporation of the Resulting Entity in the form specified below.

 

Section 3. Effect of Conversion.

 

(a) At the Effective Time, ProPhase-NV shall continue its existence in the organizational form of the Resulting Entity. At the Effective Time, the Resulting Entity shall be formed as a corporation existing under the laws of the State of Delaware. Following the Conversion, the Resulting Entity shall, for all purposes of the laws of the State of Delaware and Nevada, be deemed to be the same entity as ProPhase-NV. At the Effective Time, all of the rights, privileges and powers of ProPhase-NV, and all property, real, personal and mixed, and all debts due to ProPhase-NV, as well as all other things and causes of action belonging to ProPhase-NV, shall remain vested in the Resulting Entity and shall be the property of the Resulting Entity and the title to any real property vested by deed or otherwise in ProPhase-NV shall not revert or be in any way impaired; but all rights of creditors and all liens upon any property of ProPhase-NV shall be preserved unimpaired, and all debts, liabilities and duties of ProPhase-NV shall remain attached to the Resulting Entity, and may be enforced against it to the same extent as if said debts, liabilities and duties had originally been incurred or contracted by it in its capacity as a Delaware corporation. The rights, privileges, powers and interests in property of ProPhase-NV, as well as the debts, liabilities and duties of ProPhase-NV, shall not be deemed, as a consequence of the conversion, to have been transferred to the Resulting Entity for any purpose of the laws of the State of Delaware. The Conversion shall not be deemed to affect any obligations or liabilities of ProPhase-NV incurred prior to the Effective Time or the personal liability of any person incurred prior thereto. ProPhase-NV shall not be required to wind up its affairs or pay its liabilities and distribute its assets, and the Conversion shall not be deemed to constitute a dissolution of ProPhase-NV and shall constitute a continuation of the existence of Nevada in the form of a Delaware corporation.

 

(b) ProPhase-NV intends for the Conversion to constitute a reorganization qualifying under Section

368(a) of the Code and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

 
 

    

Section 4. Governance and Other Matters Related to the Resulting Entity.

 

(a) Certificate of lncorporation. At the Effective Time, the Certificate of lncorporation of the Resulting Entity shall be as set forth in Exhibit A attached hereto (the "Certificate of lncorporation") and shall be filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware.

 

(b) Bylaws. At the Effective Time, the Bylaws of the Resulting Entity shall be as set forth in Exhibit B attached hereto (the "Bylaws"), and shall be adopted as such by the board of directors of the Resulting Entity. Thereafter, the Bylaws may be amended by the board of directors or the stockholders of the Resulting Entity as provided in the Bylaws and the Certificate of lncorporation, as applicable.

 

(c) Directors and Officers. At the Effective Time, all directors and officers of ProPhase-NV immediately prior to the Effective Time shall become directors and officers, of the Resulting Entity, respectively, until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors have been duly elected and have qualified, or until their earlier death, resignation or removal. After the Effective Time, the Resulting Entity and its board of directors shall take any necessary actions to cause each of such individuals to be appointed or to confirm such appointments.

 

Section 5. Effect of the Conversion on the Stock of ProPhase-NV. At the Effective Time, each one (1) outstanding share of ProPhase-NV shall, without any action of the part of the holder thereof, be converted into a like class of one (1) validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable share of the Resulting Entity. Following the Effective Time, all shares of ProPhase-NV stock shall no longer be outstanding and shall automatically be canceled and retired and shall cease to exist, and each holder of ProPhase-NV stock immediately prior to the Effective Time shall cease to have any rights with respect thereto.

 

Section 6. Stock Certificates. From and after the Effective Time, all of the outstanding certificates that prior to that time represented shares of ProPhase-NV capital stock shall be deemed for all purposes to evidence ownership of and to represent the shares of the Resulting Entity capital stock into which the shares represented by such certificates have been converted as provided herein. The registered owner on the books and records of the Resulting Entity or its transfer agent of any such outstanding stock certificate shall, until such certificate is surrendered for transfer or conversion or otherwise accounted for to the Resulting Entity or its transfer agent, have and be entitled to exercise any voting and other rights with respect to and to receive any dividend and other distributions upon the shares of the Resulting Entity evidenced by such outstanding certificate as provided above.

 

Section 7. Employee Benefit and Compensation Plans. At the Effective Time, each employee benefit plan, incentive compensation plan, stock purchase plan, stock option agreement and other similar plans and agreements to which ProPhase-NV is then a party shall be automatically assumed by, and continue to be the plan of, the Resulting Entity, without further action by ProPhase-NV or the Resulting Entity or any other party thereto. To the extent any employee benefit plan, incentive compensation plan, stock option agreement or other similar plan provides for the issuance or purchase of, or otherwise relates to, shares of ProPhase-NV's capital stock, after the Effective Time, such plan or agreement shall be deemed to provide for the issuance or purchase of, or otherwise relate to, shares of the Resulting Entity's capital stock.

 

Section 8. Filings, Licenses, Permits, Titled Property, Etc. As necessary, following the Effective Time, the Resulting Entity shall apply for new qualifications to conduct business (including as a foreign corporation), licenses, permits and similar authorizations on its behalf and in its own name in connection with the Conversion and to reflect the fact that it is a corporation duly formed and validly existing under the laws of the State of Delaware. As required or appropriate, following the Effective Time, all real, personal or intangible property of ProPhase-NV which was titled or registered in the name of ProPhase-NV shall be re-titled or re-registered, as applicable, in the name of the Resulting Entity by appropriate filings or notices to the appropriate parties (including, without limitation, any applicable governmental agencies).

 

Section 9. Further Assurances. If, at any time after the Effective Time, the Resulting Entity shall determine or be advised that any deeds, bills of sale, assignments, agreements, documents or assurances or any other acts or things are necessary, desirable or proper, consistent with the terms of this Plan to vest, perfect or confirm, of record or otherwise, in the Resulting Entity its right, title or interest in, to or under any of the rights, privileges, immunities, powers, purposes, franchises, properties or assets of ProPhase-NV, or to otherwise carry out the purposes of this Plan, the Resulting Entity and its proper officers and directors (or their designees), are hereby authorized to execute and deliver, in the name and on behalf of ProPhase-NV, all such deeds, bills of sale, assignments, agreements, documents and assurances and do, in the name and on behalf of ProPhase-NV, all such other acts and things necessary, desirable to vest, perfect or confirm, of record or otherwise, in the Resulting Entity its right, title or interest in, to or under any of the rights, privileges, immunities, powers, purposes,

franchises, properties or assets of ProPhase-NV, or to otherwise carry out the purposes of this Plan and the Conversion.

 

 
 

  

Section 10. Implementation and Interpretation; Termination and Amendment. This Plan shall be implemented and interpreted, prior to the Effective Time, by the board of directors of ProPhase-NV and, upon the Effective Time, by the board of directors of the Resulting Entity, (a) each of which shall have full power and authority to delegate and assign any matters covered hereunder to any other party(ies), including, without limitation, any officers of ProPhase-NV or the Resulting Entity, as the case may be, and (b) the interpretations and decisions of which shall be final, binding, and conclusive on all parties.

 

Section II. Amendment. This Plan may be amended or modified by the board of directors of ProPhase-NV at any time prior to the Effective Time, provided that such an amendment shall not alter or change (a) the amount or kind of shares or other securities to be received hereunder by the stockholders of ProPhase-NV, (b) any term of the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws, other than changes permitted to be made without stockholder approval by the Delaware General Corporation Law, or (c) any of the terms and conditions of this Plan if such alteration or change would adversely affect the holders of any class or series of the stock of ProPhase-NV.

 

Section 12. Termination or Deferral. At any time before the Effective Time, (a) this Plan may be terminated and the Conversion may be abandoned by action of the board of directors of ProPhase-NV, notwithstanding the approval of this Plan by the stockholders of ProPhase-NV, or (b) the consummation of the Conversion may be deferred for a reasonable period of time if, in the opinion of the board of directors of ProPhase-NV, such action would be in the best interest of ProPhase-NV and its stockholders. In the event of termination of this Plan, this Plan shall become void and of no effect and there shall be no liability on the part of ProPhase-NV, its board of directors or stockholders with respect thereto.

 

Section 13. Third Party Beneficiaries. This Plan shall not confer any rights or remedies upon any person or entity other than as expressly provided herein.

 

Section 14. Severability. Whenever possible, each provision of this Plan will be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law, but if any provision of this Plan is held to be prohibited by or invalid under applicable law, such provision will be ineffective only to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of this Plan.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank; Signature Page Follows]

 

 
 

  

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Plan to be executed by its duly authorized representative as of this 16th day of June, 2015.

 

 

PROPHASE LABS, INC., a Nevada corporation

 

Name:/s/ Ted Karkus
Title:Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

PROPHASE LABS, INC.,

a Delaware corporation

 

Name:/s/ Ted Karkus
Title:Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.1

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.2

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.3

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.4

 

BYLAWS

 

OF

 

PROPHASE LABS, INC.

 

June 19, 2015)

 

Article I – OFFICES

 

Section 1.                The registered office of Prophase Labs, Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware is 874 Walker Road, Suite C, Dover, DE 19904. The name of its registered agent at such address is United Corporate Services, Inc.

 

Section 2.                The Corporation may have such offices within or without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may designate or as the business of the Corporation may require from time to time.

 

Article II – STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 1.                ANNUAL MEETING: The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year on a date and a time designated by the Board of Directors. At each annual meeting directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be transacted.

 

Section 2.                SPECIAL MEETINGS: Special meetings of the stockholders may be called at any time by (a) the Chairman or (b) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution approved by a majority of the whole Board of Directors. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice to stockholders.

 

Section 3.                PLACE OF MEETING: The Board of Directors may designate any place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the place of meeting for any annual meeting or for any special meeting called by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 4.                NOTICE OF MEETING: Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of any such meeting shall be given which notice shall state the place, date and hour of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. The notice shall, unless otherwise prescribed by statute, be delivered not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting, either personally or by mail, by or at the direction of the Chairman, to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail, addressed to the stockholder at his address as it appears on the stock transfer books of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid.

 

Section 5.                NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION:

 

Any notice to stockholder given by the Corporation pursuant to any provision of these Bylaws, the Exchange Act (as defined in Article 1.15(a) below) or the Certificate of Incorporation is effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. The consent is revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. The consent is revoked if:

 

 
 

  

(a)                The Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with the consent; and

 

(b)               The inability to deliver by electronic transmission becomes known to the secretary, assistant secretary, transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation responsible for the giving of notice. However, the inadvertent failure to treat the inability to deliver notice by electronic transmission as a revocation does not invalidate any meeting or other action.

 

Notice given pursuant to this Article 1.5 shall be deemed given if:

 

(a)                By facsimile machine, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(b)               By electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(c)                By posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of the specific posting, upon the later of:

 

(1)               Such posting; and

 

(2)               The giving of the separate notice; and

 

(d)               By any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

 

As used in this Article 1.5, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication not directly involving the physical transmission of paper that:

 

(a)                Creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by the recipient of the communication; and

 

(b)               May be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process.

 

Section 6.                CLOSING OF TRANSFER BOOKS OR FIXING OF RECORD DATE: For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend, or in order to make a determination of stockholders for any other proper purpose, the Board of Directors of the Corporation may provide that the stock transfer books shall be closed for a stated period but not to exceed, in any case, sixty (60) days. In lieu of closing the stock transfer books, the Board of Directors may fix in advance a date as the record date for any such determination of stockholders, such date in any case to be not more than sixty (60) days, and, in case of a meeting of stockholders, not less than ten (10) days prior to the date on which the particular action, requiring such determination of stockholders, is to be taken. If the stock transfer books are not closed and no record date is fixed for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders, or stockholders entitled to receive payment of a dividend, the date on which notice of the meeting is mailed or the date on which the resolution of the board of directors declaring such dividend is adopted, as the case may be, shall be the record date for such determination of stockholders. But payment or allotment of dividends may not be made more than sixty days after the date on which the resolution is adopted. When a determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders has been made as provided in this Article 2.6, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof regardless of its length except where the determination has been made through the closing of the stock transfer books and the stated period of closing has expired.

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Section 7.                BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS: This Corporation shall keep and maintain at its principal office in this State:

 

(a)                A certified copy of its Certificate of Incorporation, and all amendments thereto.

 

(b)               A certified copy of its Bylaws, and all amendments thereto.

 

(c)                A stock ledger or a duplicate stock ledger, revised annually, containing the names, alphabetically arranged, of all persons who are stockholders of the Corporation, showing their places of residence, if known, and the number of shares held by them respectively; or

 

(d)               In lieu of the stock ledger or duplication stock ledger specified in paragraph (c), a statement setting out the name of the custodian of the stock ledger or duplicate stock ledger, and the present and complete post office address, including street and number, if any, where such stock ledger or duplicate stock ledger specified in this Article 1.7 is kept.

 

Section 8.                QUORUM: A majority of the outstanding shares of the Corporation entitled to vote, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders. If less than a majority of the outstanding shares are represented at a meeting, a majority of the shares represented may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed. The stockholders present at a duly organized meeting may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

 

Section 9.                PROXIES: At any meeting of stockholders, a stockholder may vote in person or by proxy executed in writing by the stockholder or by his duly authorized attorney in fact. Proxies for use at any meeting of stockholders shall be in writing and filed with the Secretary, or such other officer as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine by resolution, before or at the time of the meeting. All proxies shall be received and taken charge of and all ballots shall be received and canvassed by the secretary of the meeting who shall decide all questions touching upon the qualification of voters, the validity of the proxies and the acceptance or rejection of votes, unless an inspector or inspectors shall have been appointed by the Chairman, in which event such inspector or inspectors shall decide all such questions.

 

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A proxy shall not be valid after six months from the date of its execution, unless coupled with an interest, but no proxy shall be valid after seven years from the date of its execution, unless renewed or extended at any time before its expiration.

 

Section 10.            VOTING AND ELECTIONS: Unless otherwise required by law or provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder shall have one vote for each share of stock entitled to vote which is registered in his name on the record date for the meeting.

 

Section 11.            VOTING OF SHARES BY CERTAIN HOLDERS: Shares standing in the name of another corporation may be voted by such officer, agent or proxy as the bylaws or a resolution of the board of directors of such corporation may prescribe, and a certified copy of the by-law or resolution is presented at the meeting.

 

Shares held by an administrator, executor, guardian or conservator may be voted by him, either in person or by proxy, without a transfer of shares into his name. A stockholder whose shares are pledged shall be entitled to vote such shares until the shares have been transferred into the name of the pledgee, and thereafter the pledgee shall be entitled to vote the shares so transferred.

 

Neither treasury shares of its own stock held by the Corporation, nor shares held by another corporation if a majority of the shares entitled to vote for the election of directors of such other corporation are held by the corporation, shall be voted at any meeting or counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time for purposes of any meeting.

 

Section 12.            VOTING TRUST: A stockholder, by agreement in writing, may transfer his stock to a voting trustee or trustees for the purpose of conferring the right to vote thereon for a period not exceeding 15 years upon the terms and conditions therein stated. The certificates of stock so transferred shall be surrendered and canceled and new certificates therefor issued to such trustee or trustees in which it shall appear that they are issued pursuant to such agreement, and in the entry of such ownership in the proper books of such corporation that fact shall also be noted, and thereupon such trustee or trustees may vote upon the stock so transferred during the terms of such agreement. A duplicate of every such agreement shall be filed in the principal office of the corporation and at all times during such terms be open to inspection by any stockholder or his attorney.

 

Section 13.            ACTION WITHOUT MEETING: Any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected at an annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.

 

Section 14.            NOMINATION OF DIRECTORS:

 

(a)                Nominations of any person for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, including by any committee or persons appointed by the Board of Directors, or (ii) by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination is proposed to be made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Article 2.14 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Article 2.14 as to such nomination. The foregoing clause (ii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.

 

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(b)               Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Article 2.15) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Article 2.14. Without qualification, if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Article 2.14. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if such special meeting is announced later than the ninetieth day prior to the date of such special meeting, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Article 2.15) of the date of such special meeting was first made. In no event shall any adjournment of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

 

(c)                To be in proper form for purposes of this Article 2.14, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:

 

(i)                 As to each Nominating Person (as defined below), the Stockholder Information (as defined in Article 2.15(c)(i), except that for purposes of this Article 2.14 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Article 2.15(c)(i));

 

(ii)               As to each Nominating Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Article 2.15(c)(ii), except that for purposes of this Article 2.14 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Article 2.15(c)(ii) and the disclosure in clause (L) of Article 2.15(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting);

 

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(iii)             As to each person whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, (A) all information with respect to such proposed nominee that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Article 2.14 if such proposed nominee were a Nominating Person, (B) all information relating to such proposed nominee that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Article 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such proposed nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), (C) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, his or her respective affiliates and associates and any other persons with whom such proposed nominee (or any of his or her respective affiliates and associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined in Article 2.15(c)), on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant, and (D) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Article 2.14(f); and

 

(iv)             The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information (A) as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the Corporation in accordance with the Corporation’s corporate governance guidelines or (B) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence or lack of independence of such proposed nominee.

 

For purposes of this Article 2.14, the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner, and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or such beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert.

 

(d)               A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Article 2.14 shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting, if practicable (or, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to) any adjournment or postponement thereof (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).

 

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(e)                Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with this Article 2.14. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with this Article 2.14, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

 

(f)                To be eligible to be a nominee for election as a director of the Corporation, the proposed nominee must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under this Article 2.14) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such proposed nominee (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such proposed nominee (i) is not and will not become a party to (A) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or (B) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (ii) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed to the Corporation and (iii) in such proposed nominee’s individual capacity and on behalf of the stockholder (or the beneficial owner, if different) on whose behalf the nomination is made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation.

 

(g)               In addition to the requirements of this Article 2.14 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Nominating Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations.

 

Section 15.            NOTICE OF BUSINESS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS:

 

(a)                At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) brought before the meeting by the Corporation and specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (ii) brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Article 2.15 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Article 2.15 as to such business. Except for proposals properly made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”), and included in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. Stockholders shall not be permitted to propose business to be brought before a special meeting of the stockholders, and the only matters that may be brought before a special meeting are the matters specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling the meeting. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board must comply with Article 2.14 and this Article 2.15 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Article 2.14.

 

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(b)               Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Article 2.15. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if such special meeting is announced later than the ninetieth day prior to the date of such special meeting, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.

 

(c)                To be in proper form for purposes of this Article 2.15, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:

 

(i)                 As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records); and (B) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Persons, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (i) and (ii) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);

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(ii)               As to each Proposing Person, (A) any derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to give such Proposing Person economic risk similar to ownership of shares of any class or series of the Corporation, including due to the fact that the value of such derivative, swap or other transactions are determined by reference to the price, value or volatility of any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which derivative, swap or other transactions provide, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any increase in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Synthetic Equity Interests”), which Synthetic Equity Interests shall be disclosed without regard to whether (x) the derivative, swap or other transactions convey any voting rights in such shares to such Proposing Person, (y) the derivative, swap or other transactions are required to be, or are capable of being, settled through delivery of such shares or (z) such Proposing Person may have entered into other transactions that hedge or mitigate the economic effect of such derivative, swap or other transactions (B) any proxy (other than a revocable proxy or consent given in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Article 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A), agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such Proposing Person has or shares a right to vote any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, (C) any agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship, including any repurchase or similar so-called “stock borrowing” agreement or arrangement, engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to mitigate loss to, reduce the economic risk (of ownership or otherwise) of shares of any class or series of the Corporation by, manage the risk of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proposing Person with respect to the shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which provides, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any decrease in the price or value of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Short Interests”), (D) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (E) any performance related fees (other than an asset based fee) that such Proposing Person is entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests, if any, (F)(x) if such Proposing Person is not a natural person, the identity of the natural person or persons associated with such Proposing Person responsible for the formulation of and decision to propose the business to be brought before the meeting (such person or persons, the “Responsible Person”), the manner in which such Responsible Person was selected, any fiduciary duties owed by such Responsible Person to the equity holders or other beneficiaries of such Proposing Person, the qualifications and background of such Responsible Person and any material interests or relationships of such Responsible Person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Proposing Person to propose such business to be brought before the meeting, and (y) if such Proposing Person is a natural person, the qualifications and background of such natural person and any material interests or relationships of such natural person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Proposing Person to propose such business to be brought before the meeting, (G) any significant equity interests or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests in any principal competitor of the Corporation held by such Proposing Persons (H) any direct or indirect interest of such Proposing Person in any contract with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (I) any pending or threatened litigation in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (J) any material transaction occurring during the prior twelve months between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation, on the other hand, (K) a summary of any material discussions regarding the business proposed to be brought before the meeting (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (including their names), and (L) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Article 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (L) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and

 

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(iii)             As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (A) a reasonably brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder.

 

For purposes of this Article 2.15, the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate (each within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act for purposes of these Bylaws) of such stockholder or beneficial owner, and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is Acting in Concert (as defined below).

 

A person shall be deemed to be “Acting in Concert” with another person for purposes of these Bylaws if such person knowingly acts (whether or not pursuant to an express agreement, arrangement or understanding) in concert with, or towards a common goal relating to the management, governance or control of the Corporation in parallel with, such other person where (A) each person is conscious of the other person’s conduct or intent and this awareness is an element in their decision-making processes and (B) at least one additional factor suggests that such persons intend to act in concert or in parallel, which such additional factors may include, without limitation, exchanging information (whether publicly or privately), attending meetings, conducting discussions, or making or soliciting invitations to act in concert or in parallel; provided, that a person shall not be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any other person solely as a result of the solicitation or receipt of revocable proxies or consents from such other person in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Article 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a proxy or consent solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A. A person Acting in Concert with another person shall be deemed to be Acting in Concert with any third party who is also Acting in Concert with such other person.

 

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(d)               A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Article 2.15 shall be true and correct as of the record date for the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting, if practicable (or, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to) any adjournment or postponement thereof (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof).

 

(e)                Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting except in accordance with this Article 2.15. The presiding officer of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Article 2.15, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

 

(f)                This Article 2.15 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act. In addition to the requirements of this Article 2.15 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Article 2.15 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.

 

(g)               For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Articles 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

Section 16.            CONDUCT OF MEETINGS:

 

(a)                Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman or in the Chairman’s absence by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the Chief Executive Officer’s absence by the President (if the President shall be a different individual than the Chief Executive Officer), or in the President’s absence by a Vice President, or in the absence of all of the foregoing persons by a chairman designated by the Board of Directors, or in the absence of such designation by a chairman chosen by vote of the stockholders at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the Secretary’s absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

 

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(b)               The Board of Directors of the Corporation may adopt by resolution such rules, regulations and procedures for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation as it shall deem appropriate including, without limitation, such guidelines and procedures as it may deem appropriate regarding the participation by means of remote communication of stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules, regulations and procedures as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as shall be determined; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

 

(c)                The chairman of the meeting shall announce at the meeting when the polls for each matter to be voted upon at the meeting will be opened and closed. If no announcement is made, the polls shall be deemed to have opened when the meeting is convened and closed upon the final adjournment of the meeting. After the polls close, no ballots, proxies or votes or any revocations or changes thereto may be accepted.

 

(d)               In advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors, the Chairman or the Chief Executive Officer shall appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is present, ready and willing to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the Corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of such inspector’s duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall make a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by law.

 

Article III – DIRECTORS

 

Section 1.                NUMBER AND TERM. The business of this Corporation shall be managed by a Board of Directors which shall consist of not less than three (3) directors nor more than nine (9) directors, who need not be residents of the State of Delaware or stockholders of the Corporation. The exact number of directors within the minimum and maximum limitations specified in the preceding sentence shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, which number shall initially be six (6).

 

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Section 2.                REGULAR MEETINGS: Each newly elected Board of Directors may hold its first meeting for the purpose of organization and the transaction of business, if a quorum is present, immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of the stockholders. Notice of such meeting shall not be required. At the first meeting of the Board of Directors in each year at which a quorum shall be present, held next after the annual meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors shall proceed to the election of the officers of the Corporation. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such times and places as shall be designated from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. Notice of such regular meetings shall not be required.

 

Section 3.                SPECIAL MEETINGS: Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, or on the written request of any two directors, by the Secretary, in each case on at least twenty-four (24) hours personal, written, telegraphic, cable or wireless notice to each director. Such notice, or any waiver thereof pursuant to Article 3.4 hereof, need not state the purpose or purposes of such meeting, except as may otherwise be required by law or provided for in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. If the day or date, time and place of a meeting of the Board of Directors has been announced at a previous meeting of the board, no notice is required. Notice of an adjourned meeting of the Board of Directors need not be given other than by announcement at the meeting at which adjournment is taken.

 

Section 4.                NOTICE WAIVER: Notice of any meeting of the Board of Directors may be waived by any director either before, at or after such meeting orally or in a writing signed by such director. A director, by his or her attendance at any meeting of the Board of Directors, shall be deemed to have waived notice of such meeting, except where the director objects at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and does not participate thereafter in the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be specified in the notice or waiver of notice of such meeting.

 

Section 5.                QUORUM AND MANNER OF ACTING: Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, a majority of the total number of directors then in office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business of the Board of Directors and the vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors.

 

Section 6.                NEWLY CREATED DIRECTORSHIPS. A directorship to be filled by reason of any increase in the number of directors may be filled (i) by election at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called for that purpose or (ii) by the Board of Directors for a term of office continuing only until the next election of one or more directors by the stockholders.

 

Section 7.                VACANCIES IN THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. Any vacancies in the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal from office or other cause shall be filled by a majority vote of the directors then in office, and directors so chosen shall hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of the class to which they have been elected expires. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

 

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Section 8.                REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS. Any director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power of the then outstanding shares of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

 

Section 9.                ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING; TELEPHONE CONFERENCE MEETING: Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, either originally or in counterparts, consent thereto in writing. Such consent shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote at a meeting, and may be stated as such in any document or instrument filed with the Secretary of State of Delaware.

 

Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, subject to the requirement for notice of meetings, members of the Board of Directors, or members of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of such Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in such a meeting shall constitute presence in person at such meeting, except where a person participates in the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the grounds that the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

Section 10.            EXECUTIVE AND OTHER COMMITTEES:

 

(a)                The Board of Directors, by resolution adopted by a majority of the number of directors then in office may designate from among its members an executive committee and one or more other committees, each consisting of two or more directors, and each of which, to the extent provided in the resolution or in the charter or these Bylaws shall have and may exercise all of the authority of the Board of Directors except the power to:

 

(i)                 Declare dividends or distributions on stock;

 

(ii)               Issue stock other than as provided in subsection (b) of this Article.

 

(iii)             Recommend to the stockholders any action which requires stockholder approving, including, but not limited to, adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation, the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the Corporation’s property and assets, a dissolution of the Corporation or a revocation of a dissolution of the Corporation; or

 

(iv)             Amend the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws.

 

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(b)               If the Board of Directors has given general authorization for the issuance of stock, a committee of the Board, in accordance with a general formula or method specified by the board by resolution or by adoption of a stock option or other plan, may fix the terms of stock subject to classification or reclassification and the terms on which any stock may be issued, including all terms and conditions required or permitted to be established or authorized by the Board of Directors under the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

(c)                The appointment of any committee, the delegation of authority to it or action by it under that authority does not constitute of itself, compliance by any director not a member of the committee, with the standard provided by statute for the performance of duties of directors.

 

(d)               Any committee designated pursuant to this Article 3.10 shall choose its own chairman, shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors when requested, shall fix its own rules or procedures, and shall meet at such times and at such place or places as may be provided by such rules, or by resolution of such committee or resolution of the Board of Directors. At every meeting of any such committee, the presence of a majority of all the members thereof shall constitute a quorum and the affirmative vote of a majority of the members present shall be necessary for the adoption by it of any resolution.

 

(e)                The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not constituting a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of the absent or disqualified member.

 

Section 11.            CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD: The Board shall elect from its members a Chairman, which Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the directors. The Chairman shall serve in such capacity until his or her successor is elected by the Board or until his or her earlier resignation or removal from the Board. He or she shall also perform such other duties the Board may assign to him or her from time to time.

 

Section 12.            COMPENSATION: By resolution of the Board of Directors, each director may be paid his expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors, and may be paid a stated salary as director or a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or both. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.

 

Section 13.            PRESUMPTION OF ASSENT: A director of the Corporation who is present at a meeting of the board of Directors at which action on any corporate matter is taken unless he shall announce his dissent at the meeting and his dissent is entered in the minutes and he shall forward such dissent by registered mail to the secretary of the corporation immediately after the adjournment of the meeting. Such right to dissent shall not apply to a director who voted in favor of such action.

 

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Article IV – OFFICERS

 

Section 1.                NUMBER, TITLES, AND TERM OF OFFICE: The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall include a Chief Executive Officer, President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, President, one or more Vice Presidents (any one or more of whom may be designated Executive Vice President or Senior Vice President), a Treasurer, a Secretary, and such other officers as the Board of Directors may from time to time elect or appoint. Each officer shall hold office until his successor shall be duly elected and shall qualify or until his death or until he shall resign or shall have been removed in the manner hereinafter provided. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the Certificate of Incorporation provides otherwise. Except for the Chairman of the Board, if any, no officers need be a director.

 

Section 2.                SALARIES: The salaries or other compensation of the officers and agents of the Corporation shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 3.                REMOVAL: Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed, either with or without cause, by the vote of a majority of the whole Board of Directors at a special meeting called for the purpose, or at any regular meeting of the Board of Directors, provided the notice for such meeting shall specify that the matter of any such proposed removal will be considered at the meeting but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Election or appointment of an officer or agent shall not of itself create contract rights.

 

Section 4.                VACANCIES: Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation may be filled by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 5.                CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER: The Chief Executive Officer shall, in the absence of the Chairman, preside at all meetings of the stockholders. Subject to the control of the Board of Directors and the executive committee (if any), the Chief Executive Officer shall have general executive charge, management and control of the properties, business and operations of the Corporation with all such powers as may be reasonably incident to such responsibilities; he may agree upon and execute all leases, contracts, evidences of indebtedness and other obligations in the name of the Corporation and may sign all certificates for shares of capital stock of the Corporation and shall have such other powers and duties as designated in accordance with these Bylaws and as from time to time may be assigned to him by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 6.                PRESIDENT: Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board to the Chief Executive Officer, the President shall have general supervision, direction, and control of the business and other officers of the corporation. The President shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of President of a corporation and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board or these Bylaws. If, for any reason, the Corporation does not have a Chairman or Chief Executive Officer, or such officers are unable to act, the President shall assume the duties of those officers.

 

Section 7.                CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER: The Chief Operating Officer shall supervise the operation of the Corporation, subject to the policies and directions of the Board. He or she shall provide for the proper operation of the Corporation and oversee the internal interrelationship amongst any and all departments of the Corporation. He or she shall submit to the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chairman and the Board timely reports on the operations of the Corporation.

 

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Section 8.                CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER: The Chief Financial Officer shall have general supervision, direction and control of the financial affairs of the Corporation. He or she shall provide for the establishment of internal controls and see that adequate audits are currently and regularly made. He or she shall submit to the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chairman and the Board timely statements of the accounts of the Corporation and the financial results of the operations thereof. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as may be prescribed by the Board or these Bylaws, all in accordance with basic policies as established by and subject to the oversight of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer. In the absence of a named Treasurer, the Chief Financial Officer shall also have the powers and duties of the Treasurer as hereinafter set forth and shall be authorized and empowered to sign as Treasurer in any case where such officer’s signature is required.

 

Section 9.                VICE PRESIDENTS: In the absence of the President, or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, a Vice President designated by the Board of Directors shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions of the President. In the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of a Vice President to perform the duties of the President, or in the event of his absence or inability or refusal to act, the Vice President who is present and who is senior in terms of time as a Vice President of the Corporation shall so act. The Vice Presidents shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the chief executive officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

Section 10.            TREASURER: The Treasurer shall have responsibility for the custody and control of all the funds and securities of the Corporation, and he shall have such other powers and duties as designated in these Bylaws and as from time to time may be assigned to him by the Board of Directors. He shall perform all acts incident to the position of Treasurer, subject to the control of the chief executive officer and the Board of Directors; and he shall, if required by the Board of Directors, give such bond for the faithful discharge of his duties in such form as the Board of Directors may require.

 

Section 11.            ASSISTANT TREASURERS: Each Assistant Treasurer shall have the usual powers and duties pertaining to his office, together with such other powers and duties as designated in these Bylaws and as from time to time may be assigned to him by the chief executive officer or the Board of Directors. The Assistant Treasurers shall exercise the powers of the Treasurer during that officer’s absence or inability or refusal to act.

 

Section 12.            SECRETARY: The Secretary shall keep the minutes of all meetings of the Board of Directors, committees of directors and the stockholders, in books provided for that purpose; he shall attend to the giving and serving of all notices; he may in the name of the Corporation affix the seal of the Corporation to all contracts of the Corporation and attest the affixation of the seal of the Corporation thereto; he may sign with the other appointed officers all certificates for shares of capital stock of the Corporation; he shall have charge of the certificate books, transfer books and stock ledgers, and such other books and papers as the Board of Directors may direct, all of which shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection of any director upon application at the office of the Corporation during business hours; he shall have such other powers and duties as designated in these Bylaws and as from time to time may be assigned to him by the Board of Directors; and he shall in general perform all acts incident to the office of Secretary, subject to the control of the chief executive officer and the Board of Directors.

 

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Section 13.            ASSISTANT SECRETARIES: Each Assistant Secretary shall have the usual powers and duties pertaining to his office, together with such other powers and duties as designated in these Bylaws and as from time to time may be assigned to him by the chief executive officer or the Board of Directors. The Assistant Secretaries shall exercise the powers of the Secretary during that officer’s absence or inability or refusal to act.

 

Article V – INDEMNIFICATION OF OFFICERS, DIRECTORS,
EMPLOYEES AND AGENTS

 

Section 1.                INDEMNIFICATION: The Corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent authorized by the Delaware General Corporation Law, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), any person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that he is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (an “indemnitee”), against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by an indemnitee in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner such indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such conduct was unlawful; provided, however, that, except as provided in Article 5.3 with respect to proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification, the Corporation shall indemnify any such indemnitee in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such indemnitee only if such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Corporation. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the indemnitee did not act in good faith and in a manner which such indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such conduct was unlawful. The right to indemnification conferred by this Article 5.1 shall vest at the time an individual becomes an indemnitee.

 

Section 2.                RIGHT TO ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES: The right to indemnification conferred in Article 5.1 shall include the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition (hereinafter an “advancement of expenses”); provided, however, that, if the Delaware General Corporation Law requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by an indemnitee in his or her capacity as a director or officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Article 5.2 or otherwise. The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in Articles 5.1 and 5.2 shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an indemnitee who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee, or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee’s heirs, executors, and administrators.

 

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Section 3.                RIGHT OF INDEMNITEE TO BRING SUIT: If a claim under Article 5.1 or 5.2 is not paid in full by the Corporation within sixty (60) days after a written claim has been received by the corporation, except in the case of a claim for an advancement of expenses, in which case the applicable period shall be twenty (20) days, the indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim. If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit. In (i) any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that, and (ii) in any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that, the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the indemnitee, be a defense to such suit. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to indemnification, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article 5 or otherwise shall be on the Corporation.

 

Section 4.                NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS: The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Article 5 shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, the corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders, or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

Section 5.                INSURANCE: The Corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee, or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

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Section 6.                INDEMNIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND AGENTS OF THE CORPORATION: The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, grant rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to any employee or agent of the Corporation to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article 5 with respect to the indemnification and advancement of expenses of directors and officers of the Corporation.

 

Section 7.                AMENDMENT OR MODIFICATION: This Article 5 may be altered or amended at any time as provided in these Bylaws, but no such amendment shall have the effect of diminishing the rights of any person who is or was an officer or director as to any acts or omissions taken or omitted to be taken prior to the effective date of such amendment.

 

Article VI – CONTRACTS, LOANS, CHECKS AND DEPOSITS

 

Section 1.                CONTRACTS: The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of on behalf of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

 

Section 2.                LOANS: No loans shall be contracted on behalf of the Corporation and no evidences of indebtedness shall be issued in its name unless authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

 

Section 3.                CHECKS, DRAFTS, ETC.: All checks, drafts, or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the corporation, shall be signed by such officer or officers, agent or agents of the Corporation and in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.

 

Section 4.                DEPOSITS: All funds of the Corporation not otherwise employed shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as the Board of Directors may select.

 

Article VII CERTIFICATES FOR SHARES AND THEIR TRANSFER

 

Section 1.                CERTIFICATES FOR SHARES: Notwithstanding any other provision in these Bylaws, any or all classes and series of shares of the Corporation, or any part thereof, may be represented by uncertificated shares, except that shares represented by a certificate that is issued and outstanding shall continue to be represented thereby until the certificate is surrendered to the corporation. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated shares, the Corporation shall send to the registered owner thereof, a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates. The rights and obligations of the holders of shares represented by certificates and the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated shares of the same class or series shall be identical. If certificates for the shares of the Corporation are issued, each will be in such form as shall be determined by the Board of Directors. Such certificates shall be signed by the president or vice president and countersigned by the secretary or an assistant secretary and sealed with the Corporation seal or a facsimile thereof. The signatures of such officers upon a certificate may be facsimile signatures if the certificate is manually signed on behalf of a transfer agent or a registrar other than the Corporation or an employee of the Corporation. Each certificate for shares shall be consecutively numbered or otherwise identified. The name and address of the person to whom the shares represented thereby are issued, with the number of shares and date of issue, shall be entered on the stock transfer books of the Corporation. All certificates surrendered to the Corporation for transfer shall be cancelled and no new certificates shall be issued until the former certificates for a like number of shares shall have been surrendered and cancelled, except that in case of a lost, destroyed or mutilated certificate, a new one may be issued therefor upon such terms and indemnity to the Corporation as the Board of Directors may prescribe.

 

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Section 2.                TRANSFER OF SHARES: Transfer of shares of the Corporation shall be made only on the stock transfer books of the Corporation by the holder of record thereof or by his legal representative, who shall furnish proper evidence of authority to transfer, or by his attorney thereunto authorized by power of attorney duly executed and filed with the secretary of the corporation, and on surrender for cancellation of the certificate for such shares. The person in whose name shares stand on the books of the Corporation shall be deemed by the Corporation to be the owner thereof for all purposes.

 

Article VIII – FISCAL YEAR

 

Section 1.                The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be determined by the Board of Directors.

 

Article IX – DIVIDENDS

 

Section 1.                The Board of Directors may, from time to time, declare and the Corporation may pay dividends on its outstanding shares in the manner, and upon the terms and conditions provided by law and its Certificate of Incorporation.

 

Article X – CORPORATE SEAL

 

Section 1.                The Board of Directors shall provide a corporate seal which shall be circular in form and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation, the year of its incorporation and the words, “Corporate Seal,” and “Delaware.”

 

Article XI – WAIVER OF NOTICE

 

Section 1.                Whenever notice is required to be given by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or under any of the provisions of these Bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors, or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws.

 

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Article XII – FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES

 

Section 1.                Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time), or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware). If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of the preceding sentence is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the preceding sentence and (ii) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder.

 

Article XIII – AMENDMENTS

 

Section 1.                Stockholders of the Corporation holding at least 66 2/3% of the Corporation’s outstanding voting stock shall have the power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws. To the extent provided in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors of the Corporation shall also have the power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation.

 

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